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Radiocarbon dating before 1950

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Radiocarbon dating was invented in the late 1940s, and within a few decades, it was discovered that while the dates retrieved from the method have a sound, repeatable progression, they are not a one-to-one match with calendar years.

Most importantly, researchers discovered that radiocarbon dates are affected by the amount of carbon in the atmosphere, which has fluctuated greatly in the past for both natural and human-caused reasons (such as the invention of iron smelting, the Industrial Revolution and the invention of the combustion engine). The problem is, of course, that CE and BCE still use the putative date of the birth of Christ as the reference points for its numbering system: the two years 1 BCE, 1 CE are equivalent to 1 BC, 1 AD.

Another standard, Oxalic Acid II was prepared when stocks of HOx 1 began to dwindle. The ratio of the activity of Oxalic acid II to 1 is 1.29330.001 (the weighted mean) (Mann, 1983). There are other secondary radiocarbon standards, the most common is ANU (Australian National University) sucrose.

The ratio of the activity of sucrose with 0.95 Ox was first measured by Polach at 1.50070.0052 (Polach, 1976b:122).

Tree rings, which record the amount of atmospheric carbon in their rings, are used to calibrate radiocarbon dates. However, a major disadvantage with using BP is--the present year, of course, changes every twelve months.

Scholars use the science of dendrochronology, which measures annular rings and matches them to known carbon fluctuations. Since the BP designation was originally associated with radiocarbon dating, archaeologists chose the year 1950 as a reference point for 'the present'.

Much of the information presented in this section is based upon the Stuiver and Polach (1977) paper "Discussion: Reporting of C14 data". 1890 wood was chosen as the radiocarbon standard because it was growing prior to the fossil fuel effects of the industrial revolution.

BP was first established as a way to clarify the relationship between calendar years and radiocarbon dates. C., with their explicit references to Christianity, or to use the alternatives C. At the same time, atmospheric nuclear testing, which throws huge amounts of carbon into our atmosphere, was begun in the 1940s.They used pottery and other materials in sites to date 'relatively'.They thought that sites which had the same kinds of pots and tools would be the same age.One advantage to using BP is it avoids the occasionally ire-filled philosophical debate about whether, in this multicultural world of ours, it is more appropriate to use A. Radiocarbon dates after 1950 are virtually useless unless and until we can figure out a way to calibrate for the excessive amount of carbon still increasing in our atmosphere.Nonetheless, 1950 is a very long time ago now--should we adjust the starting point to 2050?The total mass of the isotope is indicated by the numerical superscript.